Note: In the main body of the manuscript, there is a total of 6 tables and figures. Each figure may contain a maximum of 6 panels (parts labeled A, B, ...).
- Figures may be black and white line drawings, graphs, color illustrations, or halftones (gel blots/stains).
- Authors are responsible for the cost of printing color illustrations.
- Flaws will not be corrected.
- Figure parts should be clearly labeled. Letters, symbols, arrows, etc. must be uniform in size and style within each figure, and when possible between figures. We prefer that you use at least 12 pt Arial Bold font.
- Avoid headings on the figure when possible. Heading information should appear in the figure legend.
- Line art should not contain very thin lines, which are hard to reproduce.
- Supply a scale bar with photomicrographs.
- Provide figure legends on a separate page, double-spaced.
- If there are abbreviations or symbols in the figures, they must be defined in the figure or the figure legend.
- Limit white space between all panels and between panels and panel labels.
- Electronic source files of figures may be submitted in a pdf format for initial submission of a manuscript. Electronic source files of figures for subsequent submissions must follow the guidelines set by the publishers.
Guidelines for Digital Images
The use of digital media for image acquisition and processing introduces the potential for inadvertent distortion of data. To prevent such distortion, the following guiding principles should be used:
- Data should neither be added to, nor removed from, an image by digital manipulation. Images gathered at different times or from different locations should not be combined into a single image, unless it is stated that the resultant image is a product of time-averaged data or a time-lapse sequence. Figures assembled from multiple images must indicate the separation of the parts by lines and described in the legend.
- The use of touch-up tools, such as cloning and healing tools in Photoshop, or any feature that deliberately obscures manipulations, is unacceptable.
- Linear adjustment of contrast, brightness or color must be applied equally to controls and all parts of an entire image. Contrast should not be adjusted so that data disappear. Excessive manipulations, such as processing to emphasize one region in the image at the expense of others (e.g. through the use of a biased choice of threshold settings), is unacceptable, as is emphasizing experimental data relative to the control.
- When submitting revised final figures upon conditional acceptance, authors may be asked to submit original, unprocessed images.
- All image acquisition tools and image processing software packages used should be listed. Deviations from the above, including nonlinear adjustments, must be indicated in the figure legend along with a description of the processing software used.
How to Format Digital Images
Specific guidelines and examples are available in the following downloadable PDF: Instructions For Figure Submission.
How to Calculate Word Count for Figures
Please note that the word count for figures cannot be calculated by using the word count function in Microsoft Word. The count is based on how much space the figure will occupy on a journal page. A single bar graph is approximately 150 words.
For more detailed instructions on how to calculate words for figures [PDF].