Case of Refractory Hypertension Controlled After Aortic and Mitral Valve Replacement and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
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A 78-year-old black man presented to the Hypertension Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham for uncontrolled blood pressure (BP). His BP remained uncontrolled (automated office, ≥135/85 mm Hg) from August 2011 to August 2016 in spite of use of 6 antihypertensive agents in adequate doses (Figure 1). During this time period, his average systolic BP was 167.1 mm Hg and average diastolic BP was 68.7 mm Hg.
The patient was on 3 antihypertensive medications on initial presentation to University of Alabama at Birmingham in 2011, including an angiotensin receptor blocker (irbesartan), a calcium channel blocker (amlodipine), and a long-acting thiazide-like diuretic (chlorthalidone). Spironolactone was added as a fourth antihypertensive agent. Eventually, hydralazine—a vasodilator—and clonidine—a centrally acting sympatholytic—were added as the fifth and sixth antihypertensive agents. The patient’s BP remained uncontrolled on 6 different classes of antihypertensive medications (Figure 1).
Comorbidities and secondary causes of hypertension were evaluated by biochemical analysis and imaging.
The patient was diagnosed with mild chronic kidney disease. Mean serum creatinine was 1.35 mg/dL with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 58 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Diabetes mellitus was excluded (HbA1c was 5.5%), primary aldosteronism was excluded as the plasma aldosterone–renin ratio was <30 (plasma aldosterone was <4 ng/dL, and plasma renin activity was 1.0 ng/mL per hour), and pheochromocytoma …